Sunday, May 24, 2020

Othello Death by Difference - 1935 Words

For a long time we have been obsessed with one most tangible feature of Shakespeares Othello: the heros color. This we have done with good reason, for Othellos skin color is explicitly mentioned in the text from the very beginning. The fact that this tragic hero is black (when Shakespeares other heroes are white) is so intriguing that we seek to make sense of it. Writing in 1811, Charles Lamb insists that Othello is essentially unstageable, for there is â€Å"something extremely revolting in the courtship and wedded caresses of Othello and Desdemona† (221), earlier describing Othello as â€Å"a coal-black Moor† (221), his italics showing his disgust at the thought. Samuel Taylor Coleridge only a few years later asked if Shakespeare could be â€Å"so†¦show more content†¦She herself never directly refutes her fathers claim that she is under the influence of witchcraft; however, she does quite eloquently defend her new allegiance to Othello in 1.3. Brabantio loc ked her into a stereotype of passivity which she broke. Iago similarly tries to lock her into a stereotype of adultery in 3.3, as he carefully plants the seeds of doubt in Othellos mind. â€Å"Look to your wife† (3.3.199), he tells Othello, claiming that â€Å"In Venice they do let God see the pranks / They dare not show their husbands† (3.3.205). Arguably, Desdemona is innocent of any adultery. If so, she is breaks Iagos stereotype of the Venetian wife. This â€Å"typical† Venetian wife, Iago implies, would unquestionably and unashamedly sleep with Cassio. Since Desdemona breaks these stereotypes, she is different just as Othello is, but in a less visible way. Cassio, too, is different—something we may not always notice. â€Å"A Florentine† (1.1.17) and not a Venetian, Cassio is, like Othello, a foreigner. Like Othello, he gets hurt. Of course, he is a foreigner to a much smaller degree than Othello, and likewise his hurt is much smaller than Othellos. Also, like Desdemona, he breaks a gender stereotype: he cannot hold his liquor very well. We wouldShow MoreRelatedOthello Character Analysis905 Words   |  4 Pages1. Throughout the drama, â€Å"The Tragedy of Othello†, Iago successfully manipulates Cassio various times. In the writing, Shakespeare creates Iago’s plan to demote Cassio from being Othello’s lieutenant, the role Iago dreamt of, by tricking Cassio to get drunk so that he will raise chaos and result in Cassio being demoted. This worked out for Iago when Cassio accepts Iago’s encouraging words and began to drink heavily, this would result in Cassio ultimately fighting and stabbing Monta no in a drunkenRead More The Theme Of Death In Othello and A Dolls House Essay example1070 Words   |  5 Pagesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The theme of death is present in many works of literature. It is given metaphors and cloaked with different meanings, yet it always represents an end. Every end signifies a new beginning, and every death gives rise to a new birth. Physical death â€Å"...is mere transformation, not destruction,† writes Ding Ming-Dao. â€Å"What dies is merely the identity, the identification of a collection of parts that we called a person. What dies is only our human meaning† (49). Figuratively speaking, death symbolizes aRead MoreOthello Tragic Flaw1643 Words   |  7 PagesOthello’s Own Faults In Shakespeare’s Othello, Othello is a highly acclaimed general and because of his many achievements he has transcended stereotypes projected upon Moors in Venetian society. Desdemona and the nature of her affair, although it is false, is considered to be the root cause of Othello’s downfall and violent demise. Othello feels anxious about the racist nature engrained in Venetian society and eventually projects this manner upon his identity. The differences gave to his rise of paranoiaRead MoreComparison of Othello and Oedipus the King Essay525 Words   |  3 Pages *INTRO*The character Oedipus in the play Oedipus the King by Sophocles, and the character Othello in the play Othello the Moor of Venice by Shakespeare are both tragic characters. Oedipus ends up killing his father, and marrying and having children with his mother, whereas Othello ends up mistrusting and killing his wife. These two individuals have similarities and differences in several aspects such as the roundness of their characters, the retribution that they incur upon themselves and uponRead More Is Falling Failure or Freedom? Essay1279 Words   |  6 Pagesauthority over you. The falls in book nine of â€Å"Paradise Lost† and â€Å"Othello† both have parallels in the reasons and methods in which revenge was carried out and perfection was destroyed. But these stories end with different victors and very different balances of power. The fall of â€Å"Paradise Lost† does have motives and patterns common with the fall of â€Å"Othello.† Each story establishes the authority of a Supreme Being, God the creator and Othello respectively. God the creator made everything that exists, andRead MoreComparing and Contrasting Sophocles Antigone and Shakespeares Othello964 Words   |  4 Pagestragedies of Antigone and Othello were written with great depth and are structured in such a way that both characters are victims, in spite of their crimes. Antigone and Othello are tragedy plays created by using many techniques to create the feelings of fear and pity. There are differences and similarities in characters, action, and themes between Antigone and Othello. First, the major characters in both of the plays are suffering through great pain and end up with death. The drama Antigone whichRead MoreThe Theme of Death in Othello and a Doll House1095 Words   |  5 PagesThe theme of death is present in many works of literature. It is given metaphors and cloaked with different meanings, yet it always represents an end. Every end signifies a new beginning, and every death gives rise to a new birth. Physical death ...is mere transformation, not destruction, writes Ding Ming-Dao. What dies is merely the identity, the identification of a collection of parts that we called a person. What dies is only our human meaning (49). Figuratively speaking, death symbolizes aRead MoreLoves Destruction: Oedipus the King Essay1149 Words   |  5 Pagesultimately destroys him and results in her death. Sophocles helped shape the heroic ideal that is later embodied in medieval romance, which Shakespeare traditionally uses in Othello (Zerba). William Shakespeare wrote Othello in about 1604 (The Theater of Shakespeare). In the play, Othello, Emilia is a companion to the main character, Othello’s wife Desdemona. Emilia’s love for her husband, Iago, ultimately destroys Othello and results in her own death. Othello is a dramatic play in which ends in ironicRead MoreMedea and Othello1559 Words   |  7 PagesTwo tragedies from two different time period, Medea and Othello show similarities and differences in their characters, story plots and settings. Euripedes’ Medea written in the classical period and Shakespeare’s Othello written in the romantic era, the two tragedies shows different feel of what tragedies are. First of all, the most obvious difference between these two play is how Medea shows unities (time, place and action) whilst Othello has none. It’s clearly shown in the first scene, as soonRead MorePractice HSC essay1060 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Shakespeare’s play ‘Othello’ and the contemporary appropriation of a film ‘O’ by Tim Blake Nelson are based on the societal values and morals of their time. Issues such as racism, the use of language and deception are timeless making them evident throughout both contexts, hence the engagements in both textual forms. Differing contexts convey concerns in different ways through the use of diverse techniques. For example ‘Othello’ is a play which uses props, stage positioning and lighting compared

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Causes Of The Protestant Reformation - 1635 Words

The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious movement that took place in the Western church. Having far-reaching political, economic, and social effect, the Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. Without the changes caused by the Renaissance during the fifteenth century, the Reformation would not have been possible (Haigh). Reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII challenged the Catholic church. These reformers’ disruptions triggered wars, persecutions, and later the â€Å"Counter-Reformation.† The Reformation ended the unity imposed by medieval Christianity. Many events in the years leading up to the sixteenth century caused individuals†¦show more content†¦Scholars, upper class, and middle class were able to get their hands on the Bible and understand what it said (â€Å"The Reformation: An Overview†). Many other factors played a part in the process such as the decline of feudalism (a combination of legal and military customs), the rise of nationalism, and the rise of the common law (Kerr). All of these factors led to great individuals putting their foot down and telling the Catholic Church that enough was enough, and they were no longer going to stand idly by while the church abused its power. As the Catholic Church’s grievances were brought to light more and more people started to move away from the church. There were three main people that are credited for helping to start the Protestant Reformation in each of their own countries -- Martin Luther who was an Augustinian monk who nailed his â€Å"95 Theses† on the church door in Germany, Huldrych Zwingli who started the reformation in Switzerland, and Henry VIII who caused England to leave the church because of his quest for a male heir (â€Å"The Reformation: An Overview†). These four people, although from completely different backgrounds, helped the Protestant Reformation move throughout Europe. Martin Luther was born November 10, 1483. In 1505, Luther received his master’s degree from the University of Erfurt. Following his father’s wishes, Martin enrolled in law school at the same university, but droppedShow MoreRelatedThe Causes Of The Protestant Reformation1270 Words   |  6 Pages1. Discuss the causes of the Protestant Reformation. Which cause do you feel is most important? Why? Roman Catholicism and Christianity as a whole expanded throughout the globe over the 16th century. Roman Catholic Churches have a hierarchical organization with the Pope of Rome at the top to facilitate the matters of the Churches around the globe. Their doctrines and teachings came from their interpretations of the Bible. Roman Catholicism was widely accepted in most cases, but someRead MoreThe Causes of the Protestant Reformation599 Words   |  2 PagesThe causes of the Protestant Reformation†¨? In the 1500’s the catholic church was selling indulgences for people that had the black death, in the event of the black death you would get black spots all over the body when these spots appeared the person that was affected had three days to die, if the ill were catholic and decided to go to heaven they would go to the church and buy an indulgence which meant they reserved a spot in heaven. The business of indulgences in the Catholic Church was pullingRead MoreCauses Of The Protestant Reformation725 Words   |  3 Pagesperiod of 1300 to 1789 the churchs power declined by a significant amount. A number of things happened that decreased the churchs power during the time period of 1300 to 1789, but the Protestant reformation and the Scientific Revolution had weakened the role of the church the most. The Protestant Reformation had decreased the role of the church in Europe by decreasing its power by a large margin. Martin Luther had, had some ideas of what was wrong with the church. He expressed his ideas by writingRead MoreCause and Effects of Protestant Reformation Essay754 Words   |  4 PagesMajor Causes and Effects of the Protestant Reformation There were several causes of the Protestant Reformation that effected society, politics, and religion in Europe during the 16th century. In my opinion, the immediate cause that started the reformation was Martin Luther’s act of posting the 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral in the Roman Empire. Luther was unhappy with the Catholic Church, and posted the Theses due to the sale of indulgences that was going on to raise money forRead MoreDBQ: Causes of the Protestant Reformation739 Words   |  3 PagesThere are approximately eight hundred million Protestant Christians currently in the world with it being the second largest Christian domination (Fairchild). However, there are over a billion followers of the Roman Catholic faith and it currently stands as the Christian domination with the most followers (Fairchild). If it were not for the German monk, Martin Luther, most Christians would have been Roman Catholic in the present. Martin Luther is famous for â€Å"95 Theses† that critiqued the practicesRead MoreWhat Were The Social Cause Of The Protestant Reformation?1289 Words   |  6 PagesW hat were the social causes of the Protestant Reformation? The bible was being made more accessible than ever. One of the things that led to more people interpreting the bible is that it was translated into everyday language. Another was the fact that the printing press was enabled that allowed multiple copies of the bible to be made. Previous to this, scribes would have to write every bible by hand and this could take years, just for one of them. Another factor was the fact that there was increasedRead MoreEssay Causes and Effects of the Protestant Reformation1159 Words   |  5 Pagesit, the Protestant Reformation did not happen overnight. Catholics had begun to lose faith in the once infallible Church ever since the Great Schism, when there were two popes, each declaring that the other was the antichrist. Two things in particular can be identified as the final catalyst: a new philosophy and simple disgust. The expanding influence of humanism and the corruption of the Catholic Church led to the Protestant Reformation, which in turn launched the Catholic Reformation and religiousRead MoreThe Causes Of Martin Luther And The Protestant Reformation748 Words   |  3 PagesIn a time where Europe was flourishing between the 14th and 17th centuries with their cultural development of the art and sciences, there was a huge schism in the Catholic Church that was originally created by Martin Luther. The Protestant Reformation was initiated in 1517 when the Ninety-five Theses was posted in Saxony, Germany by Luther. Martin Luther was an Augustinian monk who criticized the Church and the papacy and laid the theological reform for the church and the pope’s authority which brokeRead MoreThe Protestant Reformation And The Reformation Essay1379 Words   |  6 PagesThe Protestant Reformation Why the Protestant Reformation is considered a significant development in the Christian Church. The Protestant Reformation was an event which occurred within the Catholic Church during the 16th century. This Reformation was prompted by Martin Luther’s ‘95 theses’ which were a list of 95 criticisms towards the church. The Reformation formed another branch of Christianity called Protestantism which is comprised of many different Christian denominations including AnglicanRead MoreThe Invention Of The Printing Press932 Words   |  4 Pagestwo effects were the exploration of the Americas and the Protestant Reformation. Exploration was Colombus and his explorers â€Å"discovering† America. The printing press had great influence on these events. The Protestant Reformation was also shaped by the printing press, in some cases more than exploration. The Protestant Reformation, or more simply, The Reformation, was a mass conversion of people from the Catholic Church to the Protestant Church. The citizens of Europe started to access more information

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Heart of Darkness Symbolic Analysis Free Essays

In the novel Heart of Darkness the focus is mainly about the situation of imperialism in that time period. It describes the hypocrisy of imperialism, the madness as a result of imperialism, and the absurdity of evil. In reality the book is about much more than that. We will write a custom essay sample on Heart of Darkness Symbolic Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Marlow is the narrator and throughout the novel his visions and thoughts about himself change greatly as he endures the journey of self-discovery. In the beginning Marlow feels lost in his life; the main focus in life to him was being a sailor on the steamboat. Marlow is very naive and has not seen as much of life as he should be seeing in order to expand his overall knowledge of the world. Marlow describes the ship and the ocean as if it was the only thing he had ever seen in his whole life. (Part 1) The fact that the beginning starts with Marlow’s description of the sea, and the facts of imperialism do not start until later indicates that imperialism was not the only reason Joseph Conrad wrote the novel. Imperialism is the policy of extending authority of a nation over foreign countries. In this case Marlow is traveling up the river to the Inner station where he encounters cruelty and torture of the salvages. (Part 1) The men who work for the Company describe what they do as â€Å"trade,† and their treatment of native Africans is part of a benevolent project of â€Å"civilization. † In reality what they are doing is taking the ivory by force in command to the orders that Kurtz demands. Kurtz knows what he is doing but he makes the other men believe it is not out of cruelty or imperialism. Through all of this Marlow is stuck in the middle because he is blinded by the good that is said of Kurtz and he refers to him as a remarkable man (Part 3), which ends up hurting his relationship with the rest of the company because they know the truth and they strongly disagree. Marlow does not know until the end of the book exactly how mad and narcissistic Kurtz really is and the damage he is doing by trying to get everything his own way. All of the problems that accumulate because of the imperialistic actions of Kurtz make Marlow less close-minded and he finds within himself his own voice and opinion. Another reason why I feel that the book is not just about imperialism, but also about Marlow’s journey to self-discovery is that Kurtz is an unknown character to Marlow and he learns more about him as the story goes forth. â€Å"I had heard about some man named Kurtz who was ill but I did not know what exactly he did or how important he was,† (Part 12). At first, very little is known about Kurtz, the only description Marlow has of him was that he was an important person to the company. Kurtz was the way that the author incorporated the idea of imperialism into the novel because he was trying to rule an export from a foreign country which would eventually lead to the rule of the country itself. †You know Kurtz, he is very important and he is ill right now but he must get better,† (Part 2). The station manager states something like that to Marlow which tells him exactly how important Kurtz really is in the company. When Marlow finds two men conspiring (Part 3) it gives him more insight into how different reality was in comparison to his thoughts of how the world worked. Marlow changes a lot throughout the novel. At first he is very naive and inexperienced, but by the end he becomes very brave and strongly opinionated. Although the book seems to be mostly about the concept of imperialism it was actually something that Marlow had to endure in order for Marlow to grow intellectually. All the things that he saw on the journey to â€Å"civilization†, everything he encountered was a new experience that taught him a life lesson. The novel Heart of Darkness was not solely a book about the Congo and Imperialism. It was about a boy who became a man in the trials and tribulations of the attempt of his Company’s head man to rule a country under his command. By the end of the imperialistic battle, between all the hardships of life at sea, conspiracy against the boss, and the extremely cruel and controversial concept of imperialism, Marlow found his true identity. How to cite Heart of Darkness Symbolic Analysis, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Final Police Department Organization free essay sample

Police organizations are social institutions that operate to their external environment ; Organization and activities must be understood in the context of their institutional environment ; The Institutional environment includes the mayor, city counsel and many others Resource Dependency Theory ; Theory that organizations must obtain resources to ; Organizations must alter their structure or strategy to accommodate others ; Environmental factors influence the structure and activities of organizations ; Organizational structures and practices are adopted to meet resource needsOrganization of Police Agencies Local Level ; Local law enforcement sectors are the closest protection and authority to the general population. Local law enforcement agencies are divided among county police departments and city police. ; City and county law enforcement divisions have the same qualifications; however each division has different responsibilities. The most prevalent county law enforcement department is the sheriffs department. Typically sheriffs are elected to their positions by the people of their county. ; Sheriff Job responsibilities are similar to that of a city police officer. Sheriff Deputies are responsible for all traffic procedures and/or prisoners in their county of employment ; City police is another Job opportunity at the local law enforcement level.City police enforce traffic procedures, handle crowd control, and deal with emergency and disasters within their city limits State Level ; Just as county and city law enforcement sectors are head of their designated county or city, state law enforcement sectors are head over all state mandated roads and state affairs. State police are considered to be higher rank than those of the local law enforcement level, however the qualifications for state police is similar to that of local police. The most familiar state law enforcement profession is State Highway Patrol. State Highway Patrol is best known for issuing traffic tickets to motorist, arresting criminals statewide, and enforcing other motor vehicle laws and regulations ; State Highway Patrol is also a resource to travelers. State Highway Patrol is ava ilable to travelers for information that they may need while on state mandated roads ; Another sector of state law enforcement is the State Bureau of Investigation. The SIB s a states version of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This agency is worked by plain clothed agents that investigate criminal and civil cases involving illegal narcotics, apprehending fugitives, and enforcing anti-terrorism laws Federal Level ; The Bis Jurisdiction covers organized crime, public corruption, financial crime, fraud against the government, bribery, copyright infringement, and drug trafficking ; The FBI is the primary investigative arm for all federal crimes. Another federal law enforcement agency that many overlook is the Secret Service.The Secret Service is a Job opportunity that has to be fulfilled by a highly dedicated and trained person who is willing to protect some of the most renowned people in the United States. ; Secret Service agents are responsible for protecting the President of the United States and immediate family, Vice President and immediate family, President-elect, Vice President-elect, and various other significant governmental figures ; These are Just two of many federal law enforcement agencies that p revent crime and protect the lives of society. Civil Service System ; Civil service procedures are a major feature of American police organizations.Civil revive represents a set of formal and legally binding procedures governing personnel decisions. ; The purpose of civil service is to ensure that personnel decisions are based on objective criteria, and not on favoritism, bias, and political influence. ; Civil service agencies are responsible for developing Job descriptions and pay scales, developing recruitment procedures, developing and administering recruitment tests, certifying qualified applicants, developing promotional criteria, developing and administering promotional tests, developing disciplinary procedures, and hearing appeals of disciplinary actions. Police departments provide input on Job descriptions, participate in recruiting, conduct some of the recruitment tests, and select recruits from certified lists. ; Civil service systems reinforce the hierarchical structure of police departments. There are four formal ; hierarchies that stratify organizational members. First, there is a rewards hierarchy. This hierarchy typically corresponds with an officers rank and seniority within the department. It does not, however, typically correspond with individual skill or performance. Second, officers are differentiated on the basis of a seniority hierarchy. Officers with more years of service are typically paid more and are given advantage over which shifts and Jobs they are assigned. Third, officers are differentiated on the basis of a status hierarchy-?their assigned status within the police department. Officers who are assigned to a specialized unit, such as detective, or who occupy a particular Job in the department, such as special assistant to the chief, typically have greater authority and responsibility in particular situations.However, an officer carries the title and authority only while assigned or appointed to a particular Job; if reassigned, the person loses both the title and the authority. Fourth, officers are differentiated on the basis of a rank hierarchy. An officer carries his or her rank permanently, until promoted. For example, an officer holding the rank of sergeant is restricted to those Jobs designated for sergeants by civil service Job descriptions. Affects of the Civil Service System ; Civil service creates a number of problems for police organizations.First, it limits the power of police chiefs in making personnel decisions. A chief cannot hire, fire, or promote those people at will. Nor can a chief change existing personnel standards at will. Second, it limits the opportunities and incentives for individual officers. Officers cannot earn financial bonuses or receive rapid promotions for exceptional performance. ; Third, many argue that the provisions for discipline make it extremely difficult for chiefs to terminate bad officers or even to discipline officers for poor performance.City of Combed Team Police Department Organization ; Establish three shifts per day, seven days a week, for full coverage with ; the appropriate number of patrol officers, sergeants and lieutenants Assign patrol officers to zones for maximum coverage. The number of zones and assigned officers depends on available staff. Record every activity, whether its checking for unlocked doors at a business after hours, writing a speeding ticket, making an arrest or interviewing a witness in an ongoing investigation Require regular radio communications with neighboring agencies Designate a limited number of evidence custodians.Not every officer should be responsible for processing and tracking cash, drugs, weapons and other evidence recovered from crime scenes. Specialized Units ; Specialized units needed based on crime in th e area ; Juvenile Units ; Dare programs K-9 units Decision Making Within Our Department ; Our decision regarding our department would be decentralized. Being decentralized, the ; decision making process is more spread all through the departments rather than concentrated on a narrow characteristic Since our focus is working with our communities to better serve them, having a decentralized organization is perfect. Unlike a centralize department, decentralized had local control. Citizens can workout a greater degree of misunderstandings and direction over their police. They have more say as to how the police operate and what aspects of public safety they focus on. Communication within the department is a crucial aspect and with having a decentralized department reduces the issue of having linkage blindness. If issues ever do transpire, they can De dealt with right then and there rather than having to wait to go through the chain of command like as centralize departments do.

Friday, March 27, 2020

Global poverty and education

In recent years, the transnational agencies launched a number of initiatives aimed at reducing worldwide poverty and improving international security. Criticizing the modernism and development theories which were used previously, the scholars made attempts to explain the major causes underlying the failure of the development efforts of the previous half a century.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Global poverty and education specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Refocusing on education development as the dominant discourse helpful for achieving the rest of the development goals is one of the most decisions made by the transnational agencies recently. This paper will discuss the criticisms of the development theories, the historical context of development efforts, the role of international and non-governmental organizations in multilateral education and solutions offered by contemporary scholars to enhance the effective ness of the launched programs. Current sociocultural perversion marginalizing the poor In modern world, all governments make efforts to not only protect their citizens but also to ensure their access to the basic services, including those of safe drinking water, health care delivery and education. Regardless of the fact that a wide range of domestic state institutions, international agencies and non-governmental organizations launch projects to benefit the poor, the poor perceive formal services as inaccessible and ineffective. The politics of representation of the Third World has had a significant impact upon the development discourse and formation of culture and subjectivities in developing countries. Escobar (1995, p. 215) noted that the very existence and status of the Third World is currently negotiated. The term of the Third World was created as an opposite of the First World denoting the countries which consider them as developed. The term has a negative connotation and remai ns an important construct used by those in power. Notwithstanding the chosen definition of modernity, the Third World should not be perceived as a uniform entity, but rather as a fragmented and polarized combination of diverse regions.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since the 1980s, resistance to development expressed by the grassroots movements was one of the strategies through which the Third World made attempts to construct their unique identities. This struggle against the intervention of international organization aimed at modernization and globalization into the domestic affairs of the Third World was fundamentally cultural (Escobar, 1995, p. 216). Another approach used for negotiating the development of the Third World was a concept of hybridization of local cultures and modernity to receive a new entity. However, this biological interpretation cannot be applied to discu ssion of hybrid cultures as a combination of long-standing cultural practices and an incoming element of modernity integrated into the local cultures by transnational forces. With the advent of cyberculture and the global economic restructuring, the technologic gap between rich and poor countries has been dramatically increased. Consequently, rejecting to use some of the innovative technologies, countries of the Third World undergo the risks of becoming irrelevant to the world economy. Even though certain regions are involved into the processes of global economic integration, they remain marginalized from it benefits. As a consequence of the current state of affairs, this phenomenon is referred to as sociocultural perversion. The solution offered by Escobar (1995, p. 222) is a social reform for the Third World regions to reach the goals of technological modernization and competitive participation in the world economy with a special emphasis put upon the educational policies in these countries. Historical context and trends in multilateralism and education The development theories have a significant impact upon the strategies implemented by transnational agencies and non-governmental organizations in relation to education policies for the developing countries. The combination of state-centric, transnationalist and structuralist theories clearly demonstrates the variety of theoretical approaches to be considered to understand multilateral cooperation and the controversy over the objectives, processes and outcomes of education.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Global poverty and education specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The policy setting in UN education is a rather controversial and complicated process. According to Jones (2005, p. 23), the UN education process lacks harmony and consistency because of the multitude and diversity of educational issues around the world. Historically, education concerns were included into the UN charter during a conference in San-Francisco in April – June 1945. The lobbyist delegations from developing countries and the US-based groups were pressing for the education case, which was expected to contribute to international peace and security. Whereas the process of integrating the education concerns into the UN charter was rather smooth, the question of whether to establish a specialized agency focusing on education remained doubtful. In the year 1948, education was included into the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a part of the UN program aimed at promoting peace and interdependence between the states on the global level. The entry of education as a multilateral concern into the programming of transnational agencies resulted in economic justification of education and consideration of the correlation between poverty of specific regions and the quality and accessibility of education programs there. Political multilateralism a nd economic multilateralism are the two major lines of thinking which had a significant impact upon the UN education programming. The goals of the global economic integration and governance were central to the multilateralism pathways chosen by the UN for promoting peace and security in the world. The links between material progress, security and modernization strategies have become explicit. Jones (2005, p. 31) stated that the circumstances on the international arena were favorable for this way of thinking. Since the mid-1980s, neo-liberalism theories influenced educational theories and became significant concerns in educational policies and practices. Discussing the issues of the complexity and diversity of educational system, Jones (2005, p. 42) used the term of structured anarchy to emphasize the collaboration and competition among the variety of the UN education agencies.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main principles which were prevalent in the organization of the UN education since the year 1945 when education concerns were included into the UN chart included globalization, security and multilateralism. The complex interplay of these principles was responsible for the education for all movement. The international organizations in construction of multilateral education Within the recent decades, the multilateral agencies, including those of the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO and UNDP, have been playing an important role in structuring the world education agenda. These agencies played a dominant role in formulating the International Development Targets (IDTs) and following Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which became the basis for the education policymaking. According to Rutkowski (2007, p. 244), the main reason for which the international organizations had impact upon the education agenda on local, national and global levels was softness of the implemented strategies. At the World Conference on Education for All which took place in 1990 in Jomtien (Thailand) invited 155 national delegations from different countries a framework on providing access to primary education for citizens of all countries was shaped. According to King (2007, p. 379), the themes raised during that World Conference focused mainly on basic education associated with primary schooling. Moreover, regardless of the precise goals and time-bound target, the Jomtien Declaration and Framework were not prescriptive and were not shared by all countries. Ten years later after the World Conference in Jomtien, in the year 200, the World Forum on Education for All was held in Dakar. By this moment, it became clear that the target of achieving the universal primary education as it was outlined by Jomtien Framework within ten years was unrealistic. Six Dakar Targets were formulated at this Forum for expanding and improving access to primary education for children belonging to the most vulnerable and disadvantaged categories and ensuring gender equality in education. Just a few months after Dakar Forum, eight Millennium Development Goals were formulated at the global summit in New York. According to King (2005, p. 386), the peculiar feature of the Millennium Declaration was formulation of strict timelines for the targets related to the south and the absence of any time limitations in resolutions related to the north. The Millennium Declaration did not pay proper attention to the financial basis necessary for the realization of the offered targets. With its financing impact and the political force, the World Bank can be regarded as one of the strongest players in the sphere of multilateral education. Regardless of the fact that the World Bank as a UN specialized agency is better understood as a financial institution dedicated to borrowing and lending money, its political influence on the development strategies is obvious. Regardless of the fact that education is only a minor concern of the World Bank and the annual reimbursements dedicated to this area do not exceed 10 percent of the overall expenses, it addresses a wide range of education issues and is prominent in multilateral education. A significant contribution made by the World Bank to the global education agenda was the resurrection of interest in higher education which can be seen from the joint initiative of the bank and UNESCO, referred to as the task force on higher education and society (TFHES) (Jones, 2005, p. 135). Notwithstanding the significance of the World Bank and other international agencies, these were only a few players affecting the multilateral education agenda. The role of non-governmental organizations in realization of development projects The Western definition of modernity, according to which certain societies are recognized as more modern and developed than others and obtaining resources and knowledge to assist other less developed nations in achieving modernity, has critic ized as Western universalism. Elu and Banya (1999, p. 183) stated that this definition was used by the north or the so-called First World for inclusion of the southern societies into the north-dominated world. In the context of post-modern critiques, the diversity and complexity of the global development activities has increased resulting in proliferation of external and internal non-governmental organizations. As it has been mentioned earlier, regardless of all the efforts to reach the most disadvantaged groups of population, the formal services are still perceived as inaccessible by the poor (Narayan, 2000, p. 120). It is one of the reasons for which a growing number of aid agencies were turned into non-governmental organizations which can be more useful for launching the development projects and leading the resources to the poor. The other reasons for these changes are the growing interest among agencies in strengthening the developmental roles of institutions outside the public sector and the demonstrated potential of non-governmental organizations to reach the poor more effectively than the public agencies do. Therefore, the popularity of the non-governmental organizations as cost-effective alternatives to public development resources has grown. Elu and Banya (1999, p. 187) stated that Northern non-governmental organizations were frequently used for transferring the cultural awareness, values and patterns from the countries providing technical and financial assistance to the developing countries as recipients of this aid. Applying this perspective to the estimation of the role of non-governmental organizations, it can be stated that these establishments are frequently perceived as products of governments using them as temporary mediators for achieving specific political goals and expanding their influence. However, as it can be seen from the example of African voluntary development organizations, southern countries do not remain passive recipients of the aid provided by northern states but create their local non-governmental organizations as a response to the African needs. Then, the question of theoretical and practical relationships between external donors and the locally-based organizations is posed. According to Elu and Banya (1999, p. 190) a partnership between the northern and southern non-governmental organizations would be the most appropriate approach to enhancing the effectiveness of initiatives launched by both parties. Regardless of the obvious benefits of potential collaboration, the partnership between the rich north and impoverished locally-based organizations is associated with a number of dilemmas. Because of the inequality of resources, expectations and motivations of the actors, the effective partnership between the north and south non-governmental organizations is not achieved even though in theory the organizations agree that mutual relationship would be advantageous for them. Effective solutions for the educati on agenda The ineffectiveness of the initiatives launched by multilateral organizations can be explained with the lack of attention paid to the specifics of the education sectors in developing countries. A detailed education sector analysis can be an effective tool for empowering reform and development through the vast majority of studies did not address the issues of the sector structure in the context of the aid relationship. The need to simultaneously address multiple high priority goals, including those of improved healthcare and education appeared to be an unresolvable tension for Africa and other developing countries. Insufficient analysis of the specifics of situation in different countries significantly reduces the effectiveness of the programs and initiatives. According to Samoff (1999, p. 270), the main conclusion made by studies addressing the problems of education in postcolonial Africa is that the educational system is in crisis without specification of the underlying p rocesses and the most influential factors affecting it. The limited national control over the education sector analysis and insufficient sense of national ownership reduce the credibility and opportunities for the practical application of existing studies. The implementation of development strategies in specific locations can have a number of unexpected and even paradoxical consequences. For example, according to Pigg (1997, p. 259), the development implementation in Nepal was rather complex and had a number of local quirks. Thus, the highly trained Nepalese health care practitioners were unwilling to work in the countryside, whereas by providing training to the village practitioners, the development strategy increased their ambitions and enabled them to move to the urban areas. These unexpected consequences were not predicted before the launch of the initiative and prove the importance of conducting a thorough research of the local setting before the development implementation. Sim ilar concerns were raised by Demerath (2003, p. 137) who pointed out at the shifts in the social attachments and ideologies of individuals after their enrollment into the training programs which are a part of development initiatives. In other words, a careful sector analysis can be an effective tool for enhancing the effectiveness of the education agendas and other development programs. Analyzing the main reasons for the failure of the global development efforts over the decades, it can be stated that the enhanced partnership between a wide array of aid organizations and a more serious consideration of the peculiar features of certain settings is important for eliminating the deficits in the programs and enhancing the effectiveness of initiatives. Coxon and Munce (2008, p. 148) stated that external aid donating organizations can threaten the local ideas of what education programs should be. For this reason, indicating global patterns of power and influence, policymakers should consi der the specifics of local cultures and pay more attention to the opportunities of enhanced partnership among the different aid donating organizations. Conclusion Analyzing the criticisms of the main development theories and initiatives, it can be stated that the lack of attention to the specifics of the situation in developing countries and lack of partnership between different agencies are among the main underlying causes of the failure of the development efforts of the previous decades. Therefore, the emphasis on education-development relationship, education sector analysis and enhanced partnership between different agencies are essential for improving access to education, reducing the world poverty and enhancing international security. References Coxon, E. and Munce, K. (2008) The global education agenda and the delivery of aid to Pacific education. Comparative Education, 44(2), pp. 147 – 165. Demerath, P. (2003) Negotiating individualist and collectivist futures: Emergin g subjectivities and social forms in Papua New Guinea high schools. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 34 (2), pp. 136 – 157. Elu, J. and Banya K. (1999) Non-governmental organizations as partners in Africa: A cultural analysis of North-South relations. In K. King and L. Buchert (eds) Changing international aid to education: Global patterns and national contexts. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, pp. 182 – 206. Escobar, A. (1995) Conclusion: Imagining a postdevelopment era. In A. Excobar Encountering development. The making and unmaking of the third world. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 212 – 247. Jones, P.W. (2005) Education, multilateralism and the UN. In P.W. Jones The United Nations and education. Multilateralism, development and globalization. London and New York: Routledge Falmer, pp. 94 – 136. King, K. (2007) Multilateral agencies in the construction of the global agenda on education. Comparative Education, 43 (3), pp. 377 – 391. Nara yan, D. (2000) Can anyone hear us? Voices of the poor. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 3-126. Pigg, S.L. (1997) Found in most traditional societies: Traditional medical practitioners between culture and development. In F. Cooper and R. Packard (eds) International development and the social sciences. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 259 – 290. Rutkowski, D. (2007) Converging us softly: How intergovernmental organizations promote neoliberal educational policy. Critical Studies in Education, 48 (2), pp. 229 – 247. Samoff, J. (1999) Education sector analysis in Africa: Limited national control and even less national ownership. International Journal of Educational Development, 19, pp. 249 – 272. This essay on Global poverty and education was written and submitted by user Brooke C. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

55 Synonyms for Courage

55 Synonyms for Courage 55 Synonyms for â€Å"Courage† 55 Synonyms for â€Å"Courage† By Mark Nichol Courage comes in many varieties, often identified by distinct synonyms. Some terms refer to determination more than bravery, but the two qualities are intertwined. Here’s a roster of the valiant vocabulary: 1-2. Adventuresomeness: Like many words on this list, this one is encumbered by the suffix -ness, but it and its nearly identical-looking and somewhat less clumsy synonym adventurousness convey a connotation of a flair for undertaking risky or dangerous enterprises. 3. Audacity: This term’s meaning as a synonym for courage is tainted by another sense, that of shamelessness. 4. Backbone: This word, one of several on this list that figuratively refer to body parts, implies that a courageous person is unyielding or indestructible. 5. Balls: This vulgar slang for testicles suggests that a person said, in a figurative sense, to possess them is endowed with an anatomical feature equated with virility and thus with courage. 6. Boldness: This word means â€Å"daring, fearless† but can also mean â€Å"adventurous† as well as â€Å"presumptuous.† 7. Bottle: This British English slang term derives from the word for a container for liquid; whether it alludes to the receptacle’s sturdiness or to the false courage inspired by imbibing alcohol from it is unclear. 8. Bravery: This word, like courage itself, is an all-purpose term, though it also can mean â€Å"finery† or â€Å"ostentatious display,† perhaps from the idea of a triumphant hero’s trappings. Brave, too, has an alternate meaning of â€Å"excellent,† and as a noun used to refer to an American Indian warrior. 9. Chivalry: This term, from the French word chevaler (whence chevalier as a synonym for knight; the Latin ancestor is caballarius, â€Å"horseman†), originally referred to the courage of a knight but later came to encompass other ideal but often unrealized qualities such as courtesy and devoutness. 10. Cojones: This frequently misspelled slang word, from the Spanish word meaning â€Å"testicles,† is often used as a (slightly) less offensive alternative to its counterpart in English slang. 11. Courageousness: This is an oddly superfluous term, considering that courage is more compact and means exactly the same thing, but courageous is a useful adjective. 12-13. Daring: This word has a connotation of reckless disregard for personal safety. Daringness is an unnecessarily extended (and therefore unnecessary) variant. 14. Dash: This term suggests ostentatious courage but can also imply the pretense of that quality, and might be confused with other senses of the word. Dashing, however, is a vivid adjective. 15. Dauntlessness: Among the words here saddled with a suffix, dauntlessness is nevertheless an expressive term. Its root, daunt, means â€Å"to tame or subdue.† 16. Determination: This word connotes resolve more than courage but is a useful associate for synonyms of the latter term. 17. Doughtiness: This word itself is somewhat clumsy, but the root word, doughty, is one of the most evocative synonyms for brave. 18. Elan: This borrowing from French, best (at least in print) with an acute accent over the first letter, comes from a word meaning â€Å"rush† and implies vigor rather than courage but has a swashbuckling flair. 19. Enterprise: This is a synonym for initiative more than for courage but has a similar sense. 20. Fearlessness: This pedestrian word pales by comparison with some of its synonyms but might be useful in a pinch. 21-22. Fortitude: The original sense of this word was â€Å"strength,† but now it connotes the determination that enables courage to prevail over fear. The variant â€Å"intestinal fortitude† implies that one will not succumb to an abdominal ailment when confronted with adversity. 23. Gallantry: This word, like some others on the list, can easily suggest a pretense of courage rather than the quality itself. 24. Greatheartedness: This word also means â€Å"generosity,† so although it can imply both qualities in one person, when it is employed, the context should make the intended sense clear. 25. Grit: This term, memorably employed in the book and film title True Grit, connotes coarse but uncompromising courage. 26-27. Guts: This slang term for the abdominal organs, traditionally thought of as the seat of emotions, applies to a combination of courage and indefatigability. A more verbose variant is gutsiness. 28. Hardihood: This term, combining the adjective hardy (which can mean â€Å"brave† as well as â€Å"tough† and â€Å"audacious†) and the suffix -hood (â€Å"state of being†), implies combined courage and robustness. 29. Heart: This word’s use as a synonym for courage stems from the idea that the heart is the source of courage. The root of the latter word, indeed, comes from coeur, the French term for the heart (and ultimately from the Latin word cor). 30. Heroism: The root word, hero, has evolved to have a broad range of senses, and the word for the quality is similarly generic. 31-32. Intrepidity: This word and its close variant intrepidness are based on intrepid, meaning â€Å"fearless† (the root word is also the basis of trepidation). 33. Lionheartedness: This term is based on the association of the animal with courage; England’s King Richard I, a medieval model of chivalry, earned the epithet â€Å"the Lionhearted.† 34. Mettle: This word, adapted from metal, means â€Å"stamina† but is also employed to refer to courage. 35. Moxie: This word, taken from the brand name for a carbonated beverage that, like its better-known and longer-lived competitors Pepsi and Coca-Cola, was originally touted as a source of pep, initially meant â€Å"energy† but came to be associated with expertise as well as courage. 36. Nerve: Because of this word’s additional sense of presumptuousness, the connotation of courage might not be clear; both meanings stem from the outdated idea that boldness is conveyed through the body’s nerves. 37. Panache: This word derived from a Latin term for â€Å"small wing† implies flamboyance as much as courage, perhaps from the ostentatious display of feathers on knights’ helmets. 38. Pecker: This British English slang term doesn’t translate to American English so well; the association of the word as an irregular synonym for courage as well as with the male genitalia is discussed in the entry for balls. 39. Pluck: This word, converted to noun form from the verb, implies determined courage despite overwhelming odds or in the face of significant adversity. 40. Prowess: This word refers to remarkable skill as well as outstanding courage. 41-43. Resoluteness: This term, more gracefully rendered as resolution or even resolve, implies a purposefulness, rather than courage per se. 44. Spirit: This word carries the connotation of assertiveness or firmness as opposed to courage; it can also mean a display of energy or animation. 45. Spunk: This word, originally referring to materials suitable as tinder, is akin to mettle and pluck in meaning. 46. Stalwartness: The root word of this term, stalwart, is an alteration of stalworth, from an Old English word meaning â€Å"serviceable,† and refers more to strength and vigor than courage but is easily associated with the latter virtue. 47-48. Stoutheartedness: This word alludes to the idea that a large, vigorous heart imbues one with courage. A more concise variant is stoutness; someone who is of reliable courage is sometimes referred to as stout. 49. Temerity: This word implies a rash, contemptuous disregard for danger. 50-51. Tenacity: This term and its longer variant tenaciousness suggest persistence. 52. Valor: This word (and the related adjective valiant) implies a romantic ideal of courage. 53. Venturesomeness: The meaning of this word is virtually identical to its virtually identical synonym adventuresomeness (see above). 54. Verve: This term, which shares the same origin as verb, refers to a boldness of expression, whether verbal or artistic. 55. Virtue: In addition to senses of morality or another beneficial quality, this term has acquired status as a synonym for courage. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:What Is Irony? (With Examples)"Wracking" or "Racking" Your Brain?How to Send Tactful Emails from a Technical Support Desk

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Managing a Diverse Workforce Around the World Research Paper

Managing a Diverse Workforce Around the World - Research Paper Example   This is because this phenomenon not only is capable of influencing the employers and employees working for an organization, but it also inflicts huge impact on the customers, suppliers, market reputation, and external stakeholders. They naturally drag along their cultures with themselves too and if leaders hesitate in making it their business to step in to look where one culture might crush the values of another culture either by mistake or with intention, big issues can develop and the ultimate consequences signify a major drop in the annual production rate. Therefore, developing the right kind of environment that is positive and healthy from the start is highly important in order to manage a culturally diverse workforce. It remains the job of the leaders to make the workforce understand that certain things which might be acceptable in one culture might appear to be truly inappropriate for workers coming from a different cultural background. Communication and teamwork if used to gether can combat the challenges raised by mismanaged workplace diversity. In the present global marketplace, conflicts originate often when the workers happen to be extremely self-involved and oblivious to the cultural circumstances around them due to which certain ideas might be presented by them that antagonize the cultural values of other workers. A culturally diverse workforce should not only be open to communication but it should be willing to collaborate. When the leaders invest wisely, the payoff might just turn out to be astounding. This is especially important as the payoffs literally affect every area of a business. In addition to better recruitment and employee retention as mentioned earlier, there is enhanced customer loyalty, stronger market position, innovative ideas, creativity, better attitudes, language skills, intuitive global understanding, and improved proposals to complex issues (Andrade, 2010). That is what results when the leaders decide to make a wise invest ment in developing a diverse workforce which is to be maintained later on by relying on teamwork and mutual collaboration as such a strategy helps in tacking the diversity challenges. It is increasingly important that the employers and managers inculcate this thing about how not being able to relate to cultural diversity can wreak havoc for an entire organization very earlier on their minds. This is because acknowledging an issue often serves as the first step to designing a solution. As discussed earlier whenever diversity is not respected at a workplace, one finds oneself entrapped between two opposing ideas as a result of which mental distortion speeds up and dissonance increases.  Ã‚